Charles Howard Candler Professor of Law


School of Law, Emory University
1301 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, U.S.A.
Tel: 001 404 727 1198; Fax: 001 404 727 6820 or 3374


  • June 1995- present:  Professor of Law at Emory University, Atlanta, GA, U.S.A.
      • July 1993 - April 1995: Executive Director Human Rights Watch/Africa, Washington, DC., U.S.A.
      • July 1992 - June 1993: Scholar-in-Residence, The Ford Foundation Office for the Middle East and North Africa, Cairo, Egypt
      • August 1991- June 1992: Olof Palme Visiting Professor, Faculty of Law, Uppsala University, Sweden.
      • August 1988- January 1991: Ariel F. Sallows Professor of Human Rights,College of Law, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Canada.
      • August 1985- July 1987: Visiting Professor of Law, School of Law, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.
      • November 1976- June 85: Lecturer and Associate Professor of Law ( Head, Department. of Public Law 1979-85), University of Khartoum, The Sudan.


Ph.D. in Law, University of Edinburgh, SCOTLAND
Dissertation on comparative pre-trial criminal procedure: English, Scottish, American and Sudanese Law.

Diploma in Criminology (M.A.), University of Cambridge, ENGLAND

LL.B. (Honours) (LL.M.), University of Cambridge, ENGLAND

LL.B. (Honours), University of Khartoum, SUDAN, awarded 1970





* Soft-cover edition by American University in Cairo, Egypt, 1992)

* Translated and published in Arabic (1994) and Indonesian (1995)



Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1999

UNIVERSAL RIGHTS, LOCAL REMEDIES: Legal Protection of Human Rights under the Constitutions of African Countries.
London: Interights, 1999.

Cairo, Egypt: Ibn Khaldoun Center, 1993.

Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. 1992.


With J. D. Gort, H. Jansen, & H. M. Vroom, HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS VALUES.
Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company , 1995.

Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1990.


  • Arabic translation: CRY OF THE OWL (a political novel) by Francis Deng, Cairo: Midlight, 1991.
  • English translation with an Introduction: THE SECOND MESSAGE OF ISLAM BY USTADH MAHMOUD MOHAMED TAHA. Syracuse University Press, 1987.



40. "Introduction: Competing Claims to Religious Freedom and Communal Self-Determination." In Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na`im, editor, PROSELYTIZATION AND COMMUNAL SELF- DETERMINATION IN AFRICA. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1999, pp. 1-28.
      39. "Human Rights and Islamic Identity in France and Uzbekistan: Mediation of the Local and Global." Occasional Paper, Claus M. Halle Institute for Global Learning, Emory University, 1999.

      38. "The Position of Islamic States Regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." In Peter Baehr, Cees Flinterman and Mignon Senders, editors, INNOVATION AND INSPIRATION: FIFTY YEARS OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1999, pp. 177-192

      37. "Universality of Human Rights: An Islamic Perspective." In Nisuke Ando, editor, JAPAN AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. The Hague, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 1999, pp. 311-325.

      36. "The Cultural Mediation of Human Rights Implementation: Al-Arqam Case in Malaysia." In Joanne Bauer and Daniel Bell, editors, HUMAN RIGHTS IN EAST ASIA. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 147-168.

35. "Human Rights and the Challenge of Relevance: The Case of Collective Rights." In Monique Castermans-Holleman, Fried van Hoof & Jacqueline Smith, editors, THE ROLE OF THE NATION-STATE IN THE 21ST CENTURY: HUMAN RIGHTS, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY, Essays in Honour of Peter Baehr. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998, pp. 3-16.
      34. "Expanding the Limits of Imagination: Human Rights from a Participatory Approach to New Multilateralism," Michael G. Schechter, editor, INNOVATION IN MULTILATERALISM. Tokyo, New York, Paris: United Nations University Press, 1998, pp. 205-222.
      33. "Islam and Human Rights in Sahilian Africa," in Eva Evers Rosander and David Westerlund, editors, AFRICAN ISLAM AND ISLAM IN AFRICA. Uppsala, Sweden: The Nordic Africa Institute and Uppsala University , 1997, pp. 79-94.

      32. "The Contingent Universality of Human Rights: The Case of Freedom of Expression in African and Islamic Contexts," EMORY INTERNATIONAL LAW REVIEW, vol. 10:3, 1997, pp. 29-66.

      31. "Cultural Transformations and Human Rights in Africa: A Preliminary Report," (with Amy Madigan and Gary Minkley). EMORY INTERNATIONAL LAW REVIEW, vol. 10:3, 1997, pp. 287-349.

      30. "Self Determination and Unity: The Case of Sudan," (with Francis Deng) LAW & SOCIETY (State University of New York at Buffalo), vol. 18, 1997, pp. 199-223.

      29. "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights," in John Witte, Jr., and Johan D. van der Vyver, editors., RELIGIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES: RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES. The Hague, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996, pp. 337-359.
      28. "Toward an Islamic Hermeneutics for Human Rights," in Abdullahi A. An-Na'im et al., editors, HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGIOUS VALUES. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995, Chapter 16.
      27. "State Responsibility Under International Human Rights Law to Change Religious and Customary Law," in Rebecca J. Cook, editor, HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994, Chapter 7.

      26. "Cultural Transformation and Normative Consensus on the Best Interest of the Child," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND THE FAMILY, vol. 8 (1994), pp. 62-81. Also published in Philip Alston, editor, THE BEST INTEREST OF THE CHILD: RECONCILING CULTURE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Oxford: UNICEF, Clarendon Press, 1994, pp. 62-81.

      25. "Eritrean Independence and African Constitutionalism: A Sudanese Perspective," in Amare Takle, editor, ERITREA AND ETHIOPIA: FROM CONFLICT TO COOPERATION. Lawrenceville, NJ, USA: The Red Sea Press, 1994, Chapter 7.

      24. "The National Question, Secession and Constitutionalism: The Mediation of Competing Claims to Self-Determination," in Stanley N. Katz, Doug Greenberg and Steve Wheatley, editors, CONSTITUTIONALISM & DEMOCRACY: TRANSITIONS IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 105-25.

      23. "Constitutional Discourse and the Civil War in the Sudan," in M.W. Daly and Ahmad Alawad Sikainga, editors, CIVIL WAR IN THE SUDAN. London, New York: British Academic Press, 1993, pp. 97-116.

      22. "Cross-Cultural Support for Equitable Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa," in Kathleen E. Mahoney and Paul J. Mahoney, editors, HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Martinus Nijoff, 1992, PP. 133-48.

      21. "Civil Rights in the Islamic Constitutional Traditions: Shared Ideals and Divergent Regimes," Chicago, Illinois, USA: THE JOHN MARSHALL LAW REVIEW, vol. 25:2 (1992), pp. 267-93.

      20. "Islam and National Integration in the Sudan," in John O. Hunwick, editor, RELIGION AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA: ISLAM, CHRISTIANITY AND POLITICS IN THE SUDAN AND NIGERIA. Evanston, IL, USA: Northwestern University Press, 1992, pp. 11-37.

      19. "Toward a Cross-Cultural Approach to Defining International Standards of Human Rights: The Meaning of Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment," in Abdullahi A. An-Na’im, editor, HUMAN RIGHTS IN CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992, pp. 19-43.

      18. "Problems of Universal Cultural Legitimacy for Human Rights," in Abdullahi A. An-Nai’im and F. M. Deng, editors, HUMAN RIGHTS IN AFRICA: CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES. Washington D.C., USA: The Brookings Institution, 1990, pp. 331-67.

      17. "Islam, Islamic Law and the Dilemma of Cultural Legitimacy for Universal Human Rights," in Claude Welch and Virginia Leary, editors, ASIAN PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN RIGHTS. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press, 1990, pp. 31-54.

      16. "Human Rights in the Muslim World: Socio-Political Conditions and Scriptural Imperatives," HARVARD HUMAN RIGHTS JOURNAL, vol. 3, 1990, pp. 13-52.

      15. "Islamic Ambivalence to Political Violence: Islamic Law and International Terrorism," GERMAN YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, vol. 31, 1988, pp. 307-336.

      14. "Mahmud Muhammad Taha and the Crisis in Islamic Law Reform: Implications for Interreligious Relations," JOURNAL OF ECUMENICAL STUDIES, Philadelphia, PA, USA (Temple University) vol. 25:1, 1988, pp. 1-21.

      13. "The Rights of Women and International Law in the Muslim Context," WHITTIER LAW REVIEW, vol. 9:3 1987, pp. 491-516.

      12. "Islamic Law, International Relations and Human Rights: Challenge and Response," CORNELL INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL, vol. 20:2, 1987, pp. 317-335.

      11. "Christian-Muslim Relations in the Sudan: Peaceful Co-existence at Risk," in Kail C. Ellis, editor, VATICAN, ISLAM AND THE MIDDLE EAST. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1987, pp. 265-276.

      10. "Religious Minorities under Islamic Law and the Limits of Cultural Relativism," HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY, (The Johns Hopkins University Press) vol. 9:1, 1987, pp, 1-18.

      9. "The Islamic Law of Apostasy and its Modern Applicability: A Case from The Sudan," RELIGION, (Academic Press, London) vol. 16, 1986, pp. 197-223.

      8. "Religious Freedom in Egypt: Under the Shadow of the Dhimma System," in Leonard Swidler, editor, RELIGIOUS LIBERTY AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN NATIONS AND RELIGIONS. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Ecumenical Press; New York: Hippocrene Books, 1986, pp. 43-59.

      7. "Detention Without Trial in the Sudan: The Use and Abuse of Legal Powers," COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW, vol. 17, 1986, pp. 159-187.

      6. "The Elusive Islamic Constitution: The Sudanese Experience," ORIENT (Deutsches Orient-Institut, Hamburg, Germany) vol. 26:3, 1985, pp. 329-340.

      5. "The Incidence and Duration of the Right of Private Defence in the Sudan" (Arabic). BULLETIN OF SUDANESE STUDIES (University of Khartoum) vol. 11, 1985, pp. 1-36.

      4. "A Modern Approach to Human Rights in Islam: Foundations and Implications for Africa," in Claude Welch and Ronald Meltzer, editors, HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York, 1984, pp. 75-89.
      3. "Pre-Trial Custody and Release in the Sudan," SUDAN NOTES AND RECORDS, (University of Khartoum) vol. 63, 1982, pp. 20-38.
      2. "The Many Hats of the Sudanese Magistrate: Role Conflict in Sudanese Criminal Procedure," JOURNAL OF AFRICAN LAW (University of London ) vol. 22:1, 1978, pp. 50-62.
      1. "A Comparative Approach to Some Problems of Pre-Trial Discovery," SUDAN LAW JOURNAL AND REPORTS, 1974, pp. 75-95.

17.  "The Spirit of the Ghost of Islamic Law," THE GREEN BAG, 2D Series, Volume 2, No. 4, Summer 1999, pp. 441-447.
16."Promises We Should All Keep in Common Cause," in Joshua Cohen, Matthew Howard and Martha C. Nussbaum, editors, IS MULTICULTURALISM BAD FOR WOMEN? Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 1999, pp. 59-64.
15. "The Universal Declaration as a Living and Evolving Common Standard of Achievement," in Barend van der Heijden and Bahia Tahzib-Lie, editors, REFLECTIONS ON THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: A FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY ANTHOLOGY, (the Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1998, pp. 45-51.
14. "Consciousness of Vulnerability," in Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, A HUMAN RIGHTS MESSAGE, 1998, pp. 16-19.
13. Reforming Islam: Sudan and the Paradox of Self-Determination," HARVARD INTERNATIONAL REVIEW", vol. XIX:2, 1997, pp. 24-27, and 64.
      12. "A New Islamic Politics: Faith and Human Rights in the Middle East," FOREIGN AFFAIRS, vol. 75:3, 1996, pp. 122-26.

      11. "Which Way Islam- Democracy or Oppression?" and "Gender and Democracy in the Islamic Context: The Current Experience of Sudan," in Mia Melin, editor, DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA: ON WHOSE TERMS? Stockholm, Sweden: Forum Syd, 1995, pp. 129-36 and 197-204, respectively.

      10. "What Do We Mean by Universal?" INDEX ON CENSORSHIP, Sept./October, 1994, pp. 120-28.

      9. "Toward an Islamic Reformation: Islamic Law in History and Society Today," and "Umma and Citizenry in a Contemporary Muslim Country," in Norani Othman, editor, SHARI'A LAW AND THE MODERN NATION-STATE. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: SIS Forum, 1994, Chapters 2 and 7.

      8. "Toward an Islamic Reformation: Responses and Reflections," and "The Application of SHARI’A (Islamic Law) and Human Rights Violations in the Sudan," in Tore Lindholm and Kari Vogt, editors, ISLAMIC LAW REFORM: CHALLENGES AND REJOINDERS. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, 1993, Chapters 6 and 8.

      7. "A Kinder, Gentler Islam?" TRANSITION, vol. 52, 1991, pp. 4-16.

      6. Review of Rainer Knopff with Thomas Flangan, HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY: THE NEW WAR ON DISCRIMINATION, Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University Press, 1989, published in THE CANADIAN BAR REVIEW, vol. 69:2, 1990, pp. 389-93.

      5. Review of Bradford W. Morse and Gordeon R. Woodman, editors, INDIGENOUS LAW AND THE STATE, Providence, RI: Foris Publications, 1988, published in THE CANADIAN BAR REVIEW, vol. 68:1 (1989), pp. 217-21.

      4. "Constitutionalism and Islamization in the Sudan," AFRICA TODAY, vol. 36:3 and 4, 1989, pp. 11-28.

      3. "The OAU and the Rights of Peoples to Self-Determination: A Plea for a Fresh Approach," AFRICA TODAY, vol. 35:3 and 4 1988, pp. 27-36.

      2. Review of R.P. Anand, CONFRONTATION OR COOPERATION? INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, New Delhi, India: Banyan Publications, 1984; and Anthony Carty, A REAPPRAISAL OF THE LIMITS OF LEGAL IMAGINATION IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, Manchester: England, Manchester University Press, 1986, published in COLUMBIA JOURNAL OF TRANSNATIONAL LAW, vol. 26:1, 1987, pp. 755-64.

      1. Review of D. Trindade and H. Lee, editors, THE CONSTITUTION OF MALAYSIA: FURTHER PERSPECTIVES AND DEVELOPMENTS New York: Oxford University Press, 1986, published in COLUMBIA JOURNAL OF TRANSNATIONAL LAW, vol. 25:3, 1987, pp. 197-204.

  • Oct. 1999- Sept. 2002: $208,000 Grant from the Ford Foundation To the Law and Religion Program of Emory University) for continuation of Women and Land in Africa project (below).
  • Sept. 1998-August 2000: $371,000 Grant from the Ford Foundation To the Law and Religion Program of Emory University) for global study of the practice and adaptation of Islamic Family Law throughout the world, with pilot country studies of Egypt and USA.
  • March 1996-August 1998: $318,000 Grant from the Ford Foundation To the Law and Religion Program of Emory University) for project on Cultural Transformation and Human Rights in Africa, focusing on the impact of culture (including religious and customary law) on women and rights land in Ethiopia, Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda. The project also co-organized two workshops, one at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, March 11-13, 1997; and the second in Entebbe, Uganda, April 23-27, 1998.
  • April- August 1995: Individual Research Grant, American Council of Learned Societies Research for a book on constitutionalism in Africa 
  • January-April 1991: Visiting Fellow, Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. Working on a research project about human rights in the Muslim world, with special emphasis on Algeria, Egypt and Pakistan.
  • April 1990-July 1991: Individual Research Grant, the Ford Foundation For research on human rights in cross-cultural perspectives, with special reference to Islamic societies.
  • August 1987-June 1988: Fellow, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.  Research and Writing grant from John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and a fellowship from the Wilson Center. Co-organized (with Dr. Francis Deng) a workshop on human rights in Africa.
  • April -June 1985: Individual Grant, the Ford Foundation For research on Islam and human right
  • Sept. 1981-June 1982: Rockefeller Fellow, Center for the Study of Human Rights, Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA.


December 12, 1999
Recipient of the 1999 Dr. J.P. van Praag Award of the Dutch Humanist Ethical Society for promoting the protection of Human Rights.

May 1 to July 31, 1999
Visiting professor, School of Human Rights Research, Faculty of Law, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

December 14-25, 1998
Short course in International Human Rights Law, The Academy of State and Social Construction under the President, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

December 7, 1998
The 1998 Professor Noel Coulson Memorial Lecture, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, "The Shari’a and Positive Legislation: Is an Islamic State Possible or Viable?"

September 17, 1998
Great Teachers Lecture, Emory University, GA, USA, "Human Rights and the Dangers of Apathy." 

January 23-24, 1997
Visiting Scholar, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, for "Conversation on Fundamentalism and Human Rights on the 10th Anniversary of the Program on the Analysis and Resolution of Conflict."

November 14, 1996
Bays Blackwell Lecture, Emory & Henry College, VA., "Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: Islamic and Western."

May 9, 1994
The 1994 Annual Toward Freedom/William B. Lloyd Lecture, Program of African Studies, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. U.S.A. , "Toward Building a Human Rights Culture in Africa."

March 3-6, 1994
The Second Parool/Index on Censorship Double Lecture (with Ronald Dworkin), Guardians of Dissent II, Conference on Censorship and Freedom of Expression, Theatre De Balie, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, "Is Freedom Expression a Universal Right?"



1997- present:
Member of the Board of Trustees, The Population Council, New York, NY, U.S. A

1997- present:
Member of the Board, Institute for Human Rights and Development, Serrekunda, The Gambia.

1997- present:
Member of the International Council on Human Rights Policy, Geneva, Switzerland (member of Founding Board of the Council, 1995-97).

International Advisory Council of the International Center for the Legal Protection of Human Rights (Interights), London, UK.

International Advisory Council, AFRONET (Inter-African Network for Human Rights & Development), Lusaka, Zambia.

Board of Trustees of RAINBOW(Research, Action & Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women), New York, U.S.A.

Board of Trustees of the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, Egypt.

Advisory Board, Urban Morgan Institute for Human Rights, College of Law, University of Cincinnati, U.S.A.

International Third World Legal Studies Association, New York, U.S.A. Vice President, 1989-90. President 1990-1998.

    1998-present: Editorial Board, INTERNATIONAL POLITICS (Kluwer Law International)

    1998-present: Co-editor, Orbis Books Inc. Series in Religion and Human Rights.

    1995-present: Co-editor, RAWAQ ARABI (Journal of the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies).

    1995-present: Advisory Editorial Board, HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY

    1988-present: Editorial Board, THIRD WORLD LEGAL STUDIES, Published by Third World Legal

    Studies Association and School of Law, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, U.S.A.



-- Lecture, "Islamic Law, International Relations and Human Rights," Department of International Law of the High Institute for International Relations, Maputo, Mozambique, Nov. 29th, 1999.

-- Public Lecture, "Human Rights in Africa," Faculty of Law, the Catholic University, Nampula city, Mozambique, Nov. 25, 1999.

-- Public Lecture, "Cultural Transformations in Africa: Human Rights Paradigm," Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique, Nov. 24th, 1999.

-- Public Lecture, "The Application of Islamic Family Law by the State," the Sunnee Surtee Hall, Port Louis, Mauritius, Nov. 19, 1999.

-- Public Lecture, "International Human Rights," Mahatma Gandhi Institute, Moka, Mauritius, Nov. 17th, 1999.

-- Round table discussion, "Globalization and Cultural Difference," Mahatma Gandhi Institute, Moka, Mauritius, Nov. 16, 1999.

-- Paper presentation, "The Position of Islamic States vis-a-vis the Universal Declaration of Human Rights," 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, December 10-11, 1998.

-- Paper Presentation, "Islamic Foundations of Women’s Human Rights in Family and Society," Islam, Reproductive Health and Women’s Rights, a Regional Workshop, Sisters in Islam Forum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 20-23, 1998.

-- Paper presentation, "Islamic Perspective on the Universality of Human Rights," Symposium for the Commemoration of the Centenary of the Japanese Association of International Law, in Kyoto, Japan, September 13-14, 1997.

-- Co-organizer and paper presentation, "The Politics of Islamization in Africa: Constitutional and Legal Implications," Workshop on Cultural Transformation, Religion, Law and Human Rights in Africa, Center for African Studies, University of Cape Town, South Africa, March 11-13, 1997.

-- Participant, Southern Africa Consultation, Project on Proselytization of the Law and Religion Program, Emory University, Cape Town, South Africa, March 5-8, 1997.

-- Co-organizer (with CODESRIA), East, North and West Africa Consultation, Project on Proselytization of the Law and Religion Program of Emory University, Dakar, Senegal, May 18-22, 1997.

-- Panelist and Chair, "African Legal Systems;" Chair/Discussant, "Local Implementation of Global Human Rights," Joint Annual Meetings of the American Law & Society Association and the British Research Committee on Sociology of Law, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K., July 10-13, 1996.

-- Panelist, "Human Rights - a Question of Principles or Interests?" and "Human Rights Activism," Palme Days, The Olof Palme International Center, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15-16, 1996.

-- Speaker, "Islam, Authority and the Law in the Modern State," Public Debate, PROLOGUES, Revue Maghrebine du Livre, Casablanca, Morocco, December 7, 1995.

-- Keynote speaker, "Religion, Peace and Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives," International Conference on Religious Extremism, Peace and Human Rights," McGill University, Montreal, Canada, September 11, 1995.

-- Paper presentation, "Competing Visions of History in Inter-Islamic Discourse and Islamic Western Dialogue," Conference on Cultural Difference and Intercultural Communication in Historical Thinking, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, University of Bielefeld, Germany, July 17-20, 1995.

-- Keynote speaker, "Freedom of Expression as a Universal Human Right," International Symposium at the Zimbabwe International Book Fair, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 28, 1995.

-- Panelist, "Civil Wars in Africa," Department of Political Science, University of Toronto, Canada, May 25-26, 1995.

-- Coordinator and participant, "Human Rights and the Police and Internal Security Forces in Sub-Saharan Africa," International Third World Legal Studies Association, InterAfrica Group and the University of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, March 12-14, 1995.

-- Speaker, "The Universality of Human Rights: A Debate," House of World Cultures, Berlin, Germany, February 4, 1995.


-- Panel discussion, "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women," Department of Political Science, Mass. Institute of Technology, October 6, 1999.

-- Round table Discussion, "Islamic Law and Peace in the Middle East," National Committee on American Foreign Policy, New York City, September 28, 1999.

-- Panel presentation, "Human Rights Between International Law and International Relations," Conference on Humanitarian Crises, Preventive Measure Through Human Rights, Conrd N. Hilton Foundation, Waldorf Astoria Hotel, New York City, September 28, 1999.

-- Paper presentation, "Islamic Identity and Citizenship: Reflections on Central Asia and Western Europe," Conference on Identities and Institutions in a Changing Europe, the Claus M. Halle Institute for Global Learning, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, November 6-7, 1998.

-- Paper presentation, "Social Movments Revisted: Mediation of Contradictory Roles," Conference on Truth, Healing and Social Justice: From Biafra to Bosnia," Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, August 7-9, 1998.

-- Panelist on Human Rights, "Prerequisites of Participation: Basic Rights," at Conference on the Challenge of Modern Democracy, University of Chicago, April 9-11, 1998.

-- Speaker at conference, "Toward a ‘Social Foreign Policy’ with Asia: Fostering Links between Americans and East Asians on Shared Social Concerns," Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Relations and the United States Institute of Peace, Washington DC, April 2-3, 1998.

-- Paper presentation, "Legal Protection of Human Rights in Africa: How to do More with Less," Amherst College, February 19, 1998.

-- Panelist, conference on "Islam and Peace in the 21st Century," American University, Washington DC, February 6-7, 1998.

-- Panelist, discussion on religion and human rights organized by the Journal of Religious Ethics at a meeting of the Society of Christian Ethics, Atlanta, January 9, 1998.

-- Paper presentation, "Religious Perspectives on the Rule of Law," lead essay for the Working Group on Religious Perspectives on the Rule of Law, Conference on the Relevance of Religion to Lawyers Work, Fordham University School of Law, June 1-3, 1997.

-- Paper presentation "Concepts of Human Rights in Islam," Center for International & Comparative Studies, Northwestern University, April 15, 1997.

-- Speaker, "Tension between Human Rights Standards and Cultural Diversity: The Case of Women and Islam," Swarthmore College, PA, April 8, 1997.

-- Public Lecture, " Political Islam and the Politics of Identity, School of Advanced International Studies, John Hopkins University, Washington DC, February 18, 1997.

-- Public Lecture, "Freedom of Expression or the Right to Expression: A Positive View of a Fundamental Right in the African Context," University of Washington, Seattle, WA, February 13, 1997.

-- Plenary Speaker, "Retrieval or Construction of Identities? Competing Paradigms in Islamic Discourse" at the Sawyer Seminar on "Religion, Law and the Construction of Identities," The University of Chicago Divinity School and the Chicago Humanities Institute, January 9-13, 1997.

-- Participant in "Seminar on East Asian Perceptions of International Human Rights," Harvard Law School, December 6-7, 1996.

-- Presentation, "Human Rights Activism in Africa: Breaking Dependency and Building Partnership," Department of Anthropology and Institute of African Studies of Emory University, October 21, 1996.

-- Paper presentation, "Human Dignity and Rights as Bases for Sovereignty in Africa," International Conference on Sovereignty and Accountability in Africa, the Brookings Institution, Washington DC., June 24-25, 1996.

-- Discussant at an International Conference, "Universalizing from Particulars: Islamic Views on Human Rights in Comparative Perspective," Center of International Studies, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A. May 24-26, 1996.

-- Public lecture, "Interreligious Relations in Africa Today," Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A., April 11, 1996.

-- Panelist, "Global Change, Human Rights and People-Centered Development," School of Law, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, March 21, 1996.

-- Panelist, "Human Rights: How Universal are Human Rights Norms?" Department of Religious Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A. March 5, 1996.

-- Panelist, "Addressing World Population Through Equal Justice for Women," Seventh Annual Conference of the National Association of Women Judges, International Association of Women Judges, Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, October 7, 1995.

-- Keynote speaker, "Internal and External Self-Determination as Framework for Conflict Resolution in Sudan," Annual Meeting of the Sudan Studies Association, Villanova University, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. May 6, 1995.

As revised January 2000


CIE-INDEXWeb master: Herman De Ley Update: 10.12.2008